In this article, I will be discussing the various stock valuation methods used to arrive at a fair value or the target price for the company. To illustrate this, I will take Reliance Industries to explain the different stock valuation methods.

[1] Stock Valuation Method – Peer Comparison

In this valuation method, we compare a company’s value to that of its peers. One of the most popular relative valuation multiples is the price-to-earnings (P/E). The P/E multiple allows to know how the stock is trading as compared to its peers.

Reliance Industries peers includes Indian Oil, BPCL, HPCL, MRPL and Chennai Petroleum. In comparison to its peers, Reliance is trading at premium.

Please note that the premium is due to the Company’s presence in retail and digital space.

Company Name Market Data Valuation
Price

(Rs.)

Market Cap 

Rs. Cr.)

EPS TTM 

(Rs.)

P/E

(x)

Indian Oil Corporation 148.0 139,282.48 17.8 8.3
Bharat Petroleum 335.7 72,810.97 34.0 9.9
Hindustan Petroleum 249.3 37,988.90 31.5 7.9
Mangalore Refinery 70.5 12,355.82 3.2 22.2
Chennai Petroleum 252.4 3,757.78 0.1
Reliance Industries 1370.8 868,915.92 66.8 20.5

Based on this method, the implied value of Reliance Industries will be calculated as Industry Average PE * Reliance Industries’ EPS TTM.

[2] Stock Valuation Method – Enterprise Value/EBITDA or EV/EBIT

Enterprise Value (EV) = market capitalization + preferred shares + minority interest + debt – total cash

This valuation method is used as a valuation tool to compare the value of a company, including debt, to its EBITDA or EBIT. Just like the P/E ratio, the lower the EV/EBITDA, the cheaper the valuation for a company. It is best to use both valuation methods simultaneously.

Company Name Market Data Financial Data – TTM basis Valuation
EV

(Rs. Cr.)

Sales 

(Rs. Cr.)

EBITDA 

(Rs. Cr.)

Margin 

%

EV/EBITDA

(x)

IOC 203,080.44 519,016.80 35,326.09 6.81% 5.7
BPCL 110,359.51 288,396.70 10,753.59 3.73% 10.3
HPCL 57,219.08 268,068.71 2,909.53 1.09% 19.7
MRPL 22,417.12 61,900.33 1,897.04 3.06% 11.8
Chennai Petroleum 6,137.98 41,178.90 761.85 1.85% 8.1
Reliance Industries 1,141,625.92 581,020.00 83,918.00 14.44% 13.6
 Median 10.3
Average 11.1

How to Arrive at Price per Share Using EV/EBITDA?

  • Step 1 – Multiply Company’s EBITDA or EBIT with the average EV/Mutiple to find the enterprise value.
  • Step 2 – Then subtract the net debt (Debt – Cash) of the company to find the equity value of the business.
  • Step 3 – After that point, divide by shares outstanding to find the equity value per share.

Different Stock Valuation Methods – Reliance Industries – Click for the valuation template.

[3] Stock Valuation Method – Sum of the Parts Valuation

This valuation method is used to value a company with business segments in different industries that have different valuation characteristics. This method values each individual business of a diversified company. Later, all businesses are clubbed together to calculate the total value of the diversified company.

Depending on the nature of business, relevant multiples like P/E, EV/EBITDA, EV/ EBIT, EV/ Sales, EV/net Income can be used for valuation.

SOTP Valuation – Segment A Valuation + Segment B Valuation+ Segment C Valuation – Net Debt = Equity Value of the Company

Take for instance, Reliance Industries’ main business is oil refining and petrochemicals but the Company has also diversified into oil and gas exploration, retailing and recently telecom. This is the most appropriate method to arrive at the fair value of Reliance as it takes into account all of its businesses.

Reliance Industries – SOTP Valuation
Segment Revenue (In Rs. Cr.) EBIT   (In Rs. Cr.) Multiple (x) Enterprise Value (In Rs. Cr.)
Petrochemicals 172,065 32,173 EV/EBIT 14.8 476,937
Refining 393,988 19,868 EV/EBIT 13.6 270,751
Oil and Gas 5,005 1,642 EV/EBITDA 5.4 8,914
Organized Retail 130,566 5,546 EV/Sales 2.8 365,166
Digital Service 46,506 8,784 EV/Sales 6.3 293,245
Others* 22,151 1,230 EV/Sales 1.0 22,151
Total Enterprise Value (In Rs. Cr.) 1,437,164
Less: Net Debt (In Rs. Cr.) 264,430
Debt (In Rs. Cr.) 271,942
Cash (In Rs. Cr.) 7,512
Market Cap (In Rs. Cr.) 1,172,734
Number of Shares in Cr. (as on 31st Dec 2018) 634
Price per share (Rs.) 1,850

*Other business segments includes media business like TV18, Network18, MoneyControl etc.

**Revenue, EBITDA and EBIT Numbers are of FY 2019.

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